How does a Submarine work? The worlds largest submarine ever built.

This is the Typhoon class submarine, the world’s largest submarine ever built. It is 574 feet long, 76 feet wide, and 38 feet tall. For comparison, here’s the size of a person. This submarine weighs a whopping 48,000 tons, which is equal to the weight of about 34,500 cars. These submarines are capable of launching nuclear warheads underwater, a weapon system that can burn the whole continent to the ground.

These submarine cruisers became the most powerful weapons, a banner of Soviet navy power, and a symbol of Cold War fears. Today, we are exploring the legend of nuclear leviathans. The Typhoon class submarine is able to accommodate a comfortable living facility for the crew of 160. It can stay submerged for 120 days in normal conditions and potentially more if deemed necessary. The Typhoon class submarine is of the multi-hull design with five inner hulls.

These are the two main long pressure hulls. There are 10 compartments of each pressure hull, a total of 20 compartments that house the crew work area, restroom, kitchen, gym, reactor compartment, turbine room, pieces of machinery, and all other living facilities. This is the torpedo hall. This compartment served as a torpedo handling area with automatic torpedo launching units. This is the control room.

This compartment is the brain of the submarine, which contains equipment for steering, diving, servicing, and other submerged operations. There are several noteworthy stations within this compartment. Submarines are designed to stay underwater for up to three months at a time. Well, all of you know there is no oxygen underwater, but how do submarines keep more than 100 people alive underwater? Let’s understand how to create breathable oxygen on a submarine.

There are two ways to create oxygen. The first one is electrolysis. This is the machine that creates oxygen called an automated electrolytic oxygen generator or AEOG. This apparatus contains positive and negative electrodes. These electrodes are immersed in purified seawater, and a chemical called potassium hydroxide is added.

Then, electricity is transmitted to these electrodes. Then, the water is separated into hydrogen and oxygen gases. The positive electrode gives off oxygen, and the negative electrode gives off hydrogen. Then, these oxygen and hydrogen gases are pumped into these pressurized tanks. The breathable oxygen is circulated around the pressure hulls through pipes and air vents.

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Oxygen is periodically released throughout the day at specific time intervals. These systems produce more than 4,000 liters of oxygen every hour. The hydrogen is then released overboard. The second method to create oxygen is burning chlorate candles. This is a chlorate candle.

It’s a cylindrical chemical oxygen generator. This contains a mix of two main chemicals. One is iron powder, and another one is sodium chlorate. When they burn, the iron creates heat, and the heat from the iron oxide is liberating oxygen from the sodium chlorate. This method is secondary.

It can be used if they ever lose power for whatever reason that required no electricity or other external power source. The solid oxygen candle is in a very small volume, but it can create a tremendous amount of oxygen. This is also used in a spacecraft. Typhoon’s propulsion system is powered by nuclear power. Some of the submarines are diesel-electric engines.

This diesel submarine can travel a range of only 14,000 nautical miles before it needs to refuel. If you are running each type of submarine with 200,000 horsepower non-stop for one week, the diesel engine would require five million liters of diesel fuel, while a nuclear submarine would require only four kilograms of enriched uranium. One of the main advantages of nuclear-powered submarines is they do not require refueling. When one of them enters into service, it will be commissioned with enough uranium fuel to last more than 30 years. The Typhoon class submarine is equipped with two pressurized water reactors.

Let’s see how these nuclear reactors work. This is the reactor vessel, which contains the fuel assembly tubes. The fuel is naturally occurring uranium. Uranium is a radioactive chemical element that occurs in most rocks in concentrations of two to four parts per million, and it’s also seen in seawater that’s processed into small pellets and sealed into metal tubes, which are welded to form a fuel bundle. Typically, more than 200 of these rods are bundled together to form a fuel assembly.

The energy production process begins with the fission of uranium atoms inside the reactor core. When the nucleus of a uranium atom is hit by a neutron, it splits into two and releases two or three additional neutrons. The fission process often produces gamma photons and releases a very large amount of energy. These neutrons are free to split other fissile nuclei, thus maintaining a chain reaction, which produces a high level of heat within these fuel tubes. These tubes then transfer heat to the primary circuit water simply by contact.

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The heated and high-pressure water then flows to a steam generator through pumps and pipes. Within the steam generator, the hot water then passes through a bundle of around 6,000 inverted U-shaped tubes. Then, it transfers heat to secondary water. In the steam generator, water is heated to a boiling temperature that turns into steam. This reactor has a set of three steam generators and three coolant pumps.

This pumping process continually runs. This steam then travels to the turbine set to rotate the turbines. Then, the rotating turbine turns a massive gearbox. Then, its power is transmitted to the propeller. Nuclear submarines carry a wide array of offensive and defensive weapons.

The primary weapon system is composed of 20 RSM 52 intercontinental ballistic missiles. The two rows of missile launch tubes are situated between the main hulls. Each missile consists of 100 kilotons of nuclear warheads, which is enough to destroy a one-kilometer radius. The submarine can be capable of firing ballistic missiles from underwater, but the rocket engine needs air to burn, so they won’t work underwater. So, how do they launch missiles from underwater?

The secret is a seal that prevents water from flooding into the launch tube. When the missile hatch opens, the weapon system contains two compressed air tanks. To launch the missile, they shoot a burst of compressed air to the bottom of the launch tube. Then, the air forces the missile out of the tube. Then, it breaks the seal at a speed of around 49 miles per hour.

It has enough momentum to cut through almost 40 meters of water. Once in the air, its rocket engines are able to ignite. These missiles are capable of traveling around 12,000 kilometers. The Typhoon class submarine is an impressive feat to behold. From multiple oxygen generation sources and nuclear warheads to modern conveniences like a gym, it is a paragon of achievement in modern warfare technology.

With Russia planning to construct at least two additional Typhoon class submarines by 2026, it will be interesting to see the latest developments in technology for national defense.

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